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MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, CELL CULTURE, IMMUNOLOGY, HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

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ICAM  = Intercellular adhesion molecules.

Iccosomes  Immune complexes in the form of small inclusion bodies found in follicular dendritic cells.

Ideogram The arrangement of (in the case of genetic analysis of a cell) the chromosomes in order by size and morphology so that the karyotype may be studied.

Idiotope  A single antigenic determinant on an antibody V region.

Idiotype  The antigenic characteristic of the V region of an antibody.

IFNs  = Interferons

Ig  = Immunoglobulin

IgA  Class of antibodies secreted by, and acting locally in, lining of gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urinary tracts.

IgD  Class of  antibodies whose function isn’t known well.

IgE  Class of antibodies that mediate immediate hypersensitivity and resistence to parasites.

IGF-I  = Insulin-like growth factor I.

IgG (Gamma globulin)  Most abundant class of antibodies.i

IgM  Class of antibodies that, along with IgG, provide major specific humoral immunity against bacteria and viruses.i

IgSF  = Immunoglobulin supergene family.

IL-1~IL-18  = Interleukins

Immortalization  The acquisition of an infinite life-span. May be induced in finite cell lines by transfection with oncogenes, or the large T-region of the SV40 genome, or infection with SV40 (whole virus) or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Does not necessarily imply malignant transformation, although it may be a component.

Immune complex  The product of an antigen-antibody reaction which may also contain components of the complement system.

Immune response (Ir) genes  Genes that affect the level of immune responses. MHC class II genes are very important in controlling responses to specific antigens.

Immunoblotting  = Western blotting

Immunofluorescence  A technique used to identify particular antigens microscopically in tissues or on cells by the binding of a fluorescent antibody conjugate.

Immunogenic  Having the ability to evoke B- and/or T-cell mediated immune reactions.

Immunoglobulin (Ig)  The serum antibody, including IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE and IgD.

Immunoglobulin supergene family  Molecules which have domains homologous to those seen in immunoglobulins, including MHC class I and II molecules, the T-cell receptor, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, ICAMs, VCAM and some of the Fc receptors.

Immunological screening  The use of an antibody to detect a polypeptide synthesized by a cloned gene.

Inclusion body  A crystalline or paracrystalline deposit within a cell, often containing substantial quantities of insoluble protein.

Incompatibility group  Comprises a number of different types of plasmid, often related to each other, that are unable to coexist in the same cell.

Induction  (Of a gene) The switching on of the expression of a gene or group of genes in response to a chemical or other stimulus. (Of λphage) Excision of the integrated form of λ, and switch to the lytic mode of infection, in response to a chemical or other stimulus.

Infection  (Other than the commonplace definition) Transfer of genomic DNA by infection with a retroviral construct containing the DNA sequence under investigation, usually packaged with a promoter sequence and a reporter gene, such as b-galactosidase, where the product may be detected by staining with a chromogenic substrate.

Inflammation  A series of reactions, which bring cells and molecules of the immune system to sites of infection or damage. This appears as an increase in blood supply, increased vascular permeability and increased transendothelial migration of leucocytes.

Initiation factor  One of a group of proteins that promote the proper association of ribosomes and mRNA and are required for initiation of protein synthesis.

Initiator  A eukaryotic promoter sequence for RNA polymerase II that specifies transcription initiation within the sequence.

Innervate  To supply with nerves.

Inorganic phosphate (Pi)  H2PO4-, HPO42-, or PO43-.

Insertion inactivation The cloning strategy whereby insertion of a new piece of DNA into a vector inactivates a gene carried by the vector.

Insertion vector  A λ vector constructed by deleting a segment of non-essential DNA.

In situ hybridization A technique for gene mapping involving hybridization of a labeled sample of a cloned gene to a large DNA molecule, usually a chromosome.

Insulin  A peptide hormone produced in the b cells of the pancreas that stimulates uptake of glucose into fat and muscle cells and with glucagons helps to regulate blood glucose levels. Insulin that has metabolic and growth-promoting effects also functions as a growth factor for many cells .

Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)  Insulin-like growth factor that mediates mitosis-stimulating effect of growth hormone on bone and possibly other tissues that also known as somatomedin C.

Integration  The insertion of one DNA molecule into another. Integration occurs during the lysogenic cycle of bacteriophage l, infection by retroviruses and the transposition of mobile DNA elements, including insertion sequences, transposons, and retrotransposons.

Integral protein  Protein embedded in membrane lipid layer that may span entire membrane or be located at only one side.

Integrins  A large family of cell surface adhesion molecules, some of which interact with CAMs, others with complement fragments, and others with components of the extracellular matrix.

Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs)  Cell surface molecules found on a variety of leucocytes and non-haematogenous cells which interact with LFA-1. ICAM-1 (CD54), ICAM-2 (CD102), ICAM-3 (CD50).

Interferons (IFNs)  A group of molecules involved in signaling between cells of the immune system, and that nonspecifically inhibit viral replication inside host cells resulting the protection against viral infections. Gamma interferon also activates macrophages and enhances killing ability of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells.

Interleukins (IL) –1~–18  A group of molecules involved in signaling between cells of the immune system and host defence.

Interleukin 1 (IL-1)  Cytokine secreted by macrophages and other cells that activates helper T cells, exerts many inflammatory effects, and mediates many of the systemic acute phase responses, including fever.

Interleukin 2 (IL-2)  Cytokine secreted by activated helper T cells that causes antigen-activated helper T, cytotoxic T, and NK cells to proliferate and increase their activity.

Interleukin 6 (IL-6)  Cytokine secreted by macrophages and other cells that increases plasma cell formation and activity that mediates some of the acute phase responses, including probably fever.

Intermediate filaments  Cytoskeletal fibers (10 nm in diameter) formed by polymerization of several classes of cell-specific subunit proteins. They attach to spot desmosomes and hemidesmosomes; form the major structural proteins of skin and hair; form the scaffold that holds Z disks and myofibrils in place in muxcle; and generally function as important structural determinants in many animal cells and tissues.

Interneuron  Neuron whose cell body and axon lie entirely in CNS.

Interphase  Long period of the cell cycle (G1, S, and G2 phases) between one mitosis and the next.

Interstitial fluid  Extracellular fluid surrounding tissue cells excluding plasma which is extracellular fluid surrounding blood cells.

Interstitium  Interstitial space that fluid-filled space between tissue cells.

Intrapleural fluid  Thin fluid film in thoracic cavity between pleura lining the inner wall of thoracic cage and pleura covering lungs.

Intron  Gene segment between exons, not encoding protein.

In vitro mutagenesis Any one of several techniques used to produce a specified mutation at a predetermined position in a DNA molecule.

In vitro packaging Synthesis of infective λ particles from a preparation of λ capsid protein and a concatamer of DNA polymerase I, used primarily in chain termination DNA sequencing.

Ionic bond  Strong electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions.

Ischemia  Reduced blood supply.

Ischemic hypoxia  Too little blood flow to tissues to deliver adequate amounts of oxygen.

Islet of Langerhans  Cluster of pancreatic endocrine cells distinct islet cells secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide.

Isoelectric focusing  Technique for separation of molecules based on their charge by gel electrophoresis in a pH gradient subjected to an electric field. A protein migrates to the pH at which its overall net charge is zero; this pH is called the isoelectric point.

Isograft (Syngraft) A graft derived from a genetically identical or nearly identical donor of the same species as the recipient.

Isotonic  Referring to a solution whose solute concentration and osmotic strength equals that of a cell so that there is not net movement of water in or out of the cell.

Isotype  Refers to genetic variation within a family of proteins or peptides such that every member of the species will have each isotype of the family represented in its genome, e.g. immuno

Isozyme  One of two or more enzymes that catalyze the same reaction but have slightly different structures and therefore slightly different affinities for substrate.

Ir genes  = Immune response genes

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