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2 ㎛ circle A plasmid found in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used as the basis for a series of cloning vectors.

TATA box  A conserved sequence in the promoter of many eukaryotic protein-coding genes that binds the general transcription factor TFIID, thereby beginning formation of the transcription-initiation complex, which contains RNA polymerase. The TATA box is typically 25-35 base pairs upstream from the transcription start site.

T cell receptor (TCR)  The T-cell antigen receptor consisting of either and αβ dimer (TCR-2) or a γδ dimer (TCR-1) associated with the CD3 molecular complex.

T cells  Lymphocytes that differentiate primarily in the thymus and are central to the control and development of immune responses. TC cell (cytotoxic T cell), TH cell (helper T cell), TS cell (suppressor T cell).

TCR  = T-cell receptor.

T-DNA The portion of the Ti plasmid transferred to the plant DNA.

Telomere  End regions of a eukaryotic chromosome containing characteristic telomeric (TEL) sequences that are replicated by a special process catalyzed by telomerase. This process counteracts the tendency of the chromosome to be shortened during each round of replication

Telophase  Final mitotic stage during which the nuclear-envelope reforms around the two sets of separated chromosomes; the chromosomes decondense; and division of the cytoplasm (cytokinesis) is completed.

Temperature-sensitive mutation A mutation that results in a gene product that is functional within a certain temperature range (e.g. at less than 30℃), but non-functional at different temperatures (e.g. above 30℃).

Template A single-stranded polynucleotide (or region of a poly nucleotide) able to direct synthesis of a complementary polynucleotide.

Tendon  Collagen fiber bundle that connects skeletal muscle to bone and transmits muscle contractile force to the bone.

Terminator The short nucleotide sequence downstream of a gene that acts as a signal for termination of transcription.

5'-terminus One of the two ends of a polynucleotide; that which carries the phosphate group attached to the 5' position of the sugar.

3’-terminus One of the two ends of a polynucleotide; that which carries the hydroxyl group attached to the 3’ position of the sugar.

Tertiary structure  In proteins, overall three-dimensional form of a polypeptide chain, which is stabilized by multiple non-covalent interactions between side chains.

Tetraploid Twice the diploid (four times the haploid) number of chromosomes.

TGFs  = Transforming growth factors.

Thioester bond  A high-energy bond present in acetyl CoA and many enzyme-substrate complexes formed by a condensation reaction between a carboxyl group and a sulfhydryl group (-SH).

Thymus  A primary lymphoid organ lying in the thoracic cavity over the heart.

Thyroid gland  Paired endocrine gland in neck ; secretes thyroid hormones and calcitonin.

Thyroid hormones(TH)  Collective term for amine hormones released ffrom thyroid gland, that is, thyroxine(T4) and triiodothyronine(T3).

Tight junction  Cell junction in epithelial tissues that extends around cell and restricts molecule diffusion through space between cells.

Ti plasmid The large plasmid found in those Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells able to direct crown gall formation on certain species of plants.

Tissue culture Properly, the maintenance of fragments of tissue in vitro but now commonly applied as a generic term to include tissue explant culture, organ culture, and dispersed cell culture, including the culture of propagated cell lines and cell strains.

Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)  Plasma protein produced by endothelial cells. After binding to fibrinogen, t-PA activates the proenzyme plasminogen.

Tissue typing  Determination of an individual’s allotypic variants of MHC molecules.

Tm value The melting temperature of a double-stranded DNA or DNA-RNA molecule.

TNF  = Tumor necrosis factor

Tolerance  A state of specific immunological unresponsiveness. Diminished or nonexistent capacity to mount an immune response to a particular antigen. Tolerance is produced by contact with an antigen during development of the immune system (self-tolerance) or by introduction of antigen under nonimmunizing conditions (induced tolerance). Condition in which increasing drug doses are required to achieve effects that initially occurred in response to a smaller dose.

Total cell DNA Consists of all DNA presents in a single cell or group of cells.

Toxemia of pregnancy  Disease occurring in pregnant women and associated with fluid retention, urinary protein, hypertension, and possibly convulsions, called ecampsia.

t-PA  = Tissue plasminogen activator.

Trans-active  Referring to DNA sequences that encode diffusible proteins (e.g. repressors and transcription factors) that control genes on the same or different chromosomes. Opp. Cis-active.

Transcription  Process whereby one strand of a DNA molecule is used as a template for synthesis of a complementary RNA. RNA polymerase and various accessory proteins called transcription factors form a complex that initiates transcription.

Transcript analysis Experiment aimed at determining which portions of a DNA molecule are transcribed into RNA.

Transcription factor (TF)  General term for any protein, other than RNA polymerase, required to initiate or regulate transcription in eukaryotic cells. General factors, required for transcription of all genes, participate in formation of the transcription-initiation complex near the start site. Specific factors stimulate (or repress) transcription of particular genes by binding to their regulatory sequences (e.g., enhancers, promoter-proximal elements).

Transfection The transfer, by artificial means, of genetic material from one cell to another. Implies transfer of less than the whole nucleus of the donor cell and is usually achieved by using isolated chromosomes, DNA, or cloned genes.

Transferrin  Iron-binding protein carrier for iron in plasma.

Transformation A permanent alteration of the cell phenotype presumed to occur via an irreversible genetic change. May be spontaneous as in the development of rapidly growing continuous cell lines from slow-growing early passage rodent cell lines or induced by chemical or viral action. Usually produces cell lines that have an increased growth rate, an infinite life-span, a higher plating efficiency, and are often (but not necessarily) tumorigenic.

Transformation frequency A measure of the proportion of cells in a population that are transformed in a single experiment.

Transforming growth factors (TGFs)  A group of cytokines, identified by their ability to promote fibroblast growth, that are also generally immunosuppressive.

Transgene  A cloned gene that is introduced and stably incorporated into a plant or animal and is passed on to successive generations.

Transgenic animal  An animal in which one or more new genes have been incorporated. These are often placed under specific promotors so that they are only expressed in particular tissues for limited periods.

Translation  The ribosome-mediated production of a polypeptide whose amino acid sequence is specified by the codon sequence in an mRNA.

Transposon  A relatively long mobile DNA element, present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, that moves in the genome by a mechanism involving DNA synthesis and transposition.

Transverse tubule (T tubule)  Tubule extending from striated-muscle plasma membrane into the fiber, passing between opposed sarcoplasmic-reticulum segments and conducting muscle action potential into muscle fiber.

Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle  = Krebs cycle.

Triiodothyronine (T3)  Iodine-containing amine hormone secreted by thyroid gland.

Tropomyosin  Regulatory protein capable of reversibly covering binding sites on actin, associated with muscle thin filaments.

Troponin  Regulatory protein bound to actin and tropomyosin of striated-muscle thin filaments. Site of calcium binding that initiates contractile activity.

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)  A cytokine released by activated macrophages that is structurally related to lymphotoxin released by activated T cells. Cytokine that stimulates inflammation and mediates many systemic acute phase responses.

Tyrosine kinase  Protein kinase that is part of receptor and is activated upon ligand binding to the receptor, and phosphorylates tyrosine portion of proteins.

Tyrosine kinase-linked receptors  Class of cell-surface receptors that are linked to cytosolic tyrosine kinases; also called cytokine –receptor superfamily. Ligand binding to these receptors leads to cytosolic activation of STAT proteins, which translocate to the nucleus and stimulate transcription of specific genes.

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